Glossary of terms Safety Performance Indicators


Assault and violent act (as an incident/event category)Intentional attempt, threat or act of bodily injury by a person or person(s) or by violent harmful actions of unknown intent, includes intentional acts of damage to property.
Aviation accident (as an incident/event category)An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which, in the case of a manned aircraft, takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked or, in the case of an unmanned aircraft, takes place between the time the aircraft is ready to move with the purpose of flight until such time as it comes to rest at the end of the flight and the primary propulsion system is shut down.
Caught in, under or between (as an incident/ event category)Injury where injured person is crushed or similarly injured between machinery moving parts or other objects, caught between rolling tubulars or objects being moved, crushed between a ship and a dock, or similar incidents. Also includes vehicle incidents involving a rollover.
Causal factorsSee IOGP Report 2019su, Safety data reporting users' guide – 2019 data.
Company employeeAny person employed by and on the payroll of the reporting company, including corporate and management personnel specifically involved in E&P. Persons employed under short-service contracts are included as company employees provided they are paid directly by the company.
Confined space (as an incident/event category)Spaces that are considered confined because their configurations hinder the activities of employee who must enter, work in, and exit them. Confined spaces include, but are not limited to underground vaults, tanks, storage bins, manholes, pits, silos, process vessels and pipelines.
Construction (as a work function)Major construction and fabrication activities as well as disassembly, removal and disposal (decommissioning) at the end of the facility life. Includes construction of process plant, yard construction of structures, offshore installation, hook-up and commissioning, and removal of redundant process facilities.
Construction, commissioning, decommissioning (as a type of activity)Activities involving the construction, fabrication and installation of equipment, facilities or plant, testing activities to verify design objectives or specification, and also disassembly, removal and disposal (decommissioning) at the end of the facility life.
ContractorA contractor is defined as an individual or organisation performing work for the reporting company, following verbal or written agreement. Subcontractor is synonymous with contractor.
Contractor employeeAny person employed by a contractor or contractor’s subcontractor(s) who is directly involved in execution of prescribed work under a contract with the reporting company.
Cut, puncture, scrape (as an incident/event category)Abrasions, scratches and wounds that penetrate the skin.
Diving operationsThe personnel, equipment and management systems to support a person who dives. A person dives if they enter water or any other liquid, or a chamber in which they are subject to pressure greater than 100 millibars above atmospheric pressure, and in order to survive in such an environment breathes air or other gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. Or for such a purpose uses a vehicle, capsule or suit where a sealed internal atmospheric pressure is maintained and where the external pressure differential is greater than 100 millibars.
Diving, subsea, ROV (as a type of activity)Operations involving diving (see definition for diving operations), subsea equipment or activities and/or operations involving underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROV).
Drilling (as a work function)All exploration, appraisal and production drilling and workover as well as their administrative, engineering, construction, materials supply and transportation aspects. It includes site preparation, rigging up and down and restoration of the drilling site upon work completion. Drilling includes ALL exploration, appraisal and production drilling.
Drilling/workover/well services (as a type of activity)Activities involving the development, maintenance work or remedial treatments related to an oil or gas well.
Dropped objects (as an incident/event category)Any item with the potential to cause injury, death, or equipment/environmental damage, that falls down or over from its previous position. Specifically excludes falls from height (people). Source: Dropped Object Prevention Scheme, Recommended Practice
EventAn unplanned or uncontrolled outcome of a business operation or activity that has or could have contributed to an injury or physical damage or environmental damage.
Excavation, trenching, ground disturbance (as a type of activity)Work that involves a cut, cavity, trench or depression in the earth’s surface formed by earth removal.
Exploration (as a work function)Geophysical, seismographic and geological operations, including their administrative and engineering aspects, construction, maintenance, materials supply, and transportation of personnel and equipment; excludes drilling.
Explosion or Burn (as an incident/event category)Burns or other effects of fires, explosions and extremes of temperature. ‘Explosion’ means a rapid combustion, not an overpressure.
Exposure: Electrical (as an incident/event category)Exposure to electrical shock or electrical burns etc.
Exposure: Noise, Chemical, Biological, Vibration (as an incident/event category)Exposure to noise, chemical substances (including asphyxiation due to lack of oxygen not associated with a confined space), hazardous biological material, vibration or radiation.
Falls from height (as an incident/event category)A person falls from one level to another.
Fatal Accident Rate (FAR)The number of company/contractor fatalities per 100 000 000 (100 million) hours worked.
Fatal incident rate (FIR)The number of incidents that result in one or more fatalities per 100 million hours worked
FatalityCases that involve one or more people who died as a result of a work-related incident or occupational illness.
First Aid CaseCases that are not sufficiently serious to be reported as medical treatment or more serious cases but nevertheless require minor first aid treatment, e.g., dressing on a minor cut, removal of a splinter from a finger. First aid cases are not recordable incidents.
High Potential EventAny incident or near miss that could have realistically resulted in one or more fatalities.
Hours WorkedThe actual hours worked, including overtime hours, are recorded in the case of onshore operations. The hours worked by an individual will generally be about 2,000 per year. For offshore workers, the hours worked are calculated on a 12-hour work day. Consequently, average hours worked per year will vary from 1,600 to 2,300 hours per person depending upon the on/off shift ratio. Vacations and leave are excluded.
Hours Worked in Year (thousands)Hours are rounded to the nearest thousand.
IncidentAn unplanned or uncontrolled Event or chain of Events that has resulted in at least one fatality, recordable injury, or physical or environmental damage.
Key performance indicators (KPI)In this report, these include: number of fatalities, fatal accident and incident rates, lost time injury rate and total recordable injury rate.
Lifting, crane, rigging, deck operations (as a type of activity)Activities related to the use of mechanical lifting and hoisting equipment, assembling and disassembling drilling rig equipment and drill pipe handling on the rig floor.
Loss of Primary Containment (LOPC)An unplanned or uncontrolled release of any material from primary containment, including non-toxic and non-flammable materials (e.g., steam, hot condensate, nitrogen, compressed CO2 or compressed air)
Lost Time Injury (LTI)A fatality or lost work day case. The number of LTIs is the sum of fatalities and lost work day cases.
Lost time injury rate (LTIR)The number of lost time injuries (fatalities + lost work day cases) incidents per 1,000,000 hours worked.
Lost Work Day Case (LWDC)Any work-related injury, other than a fatal injury, which results in a person being unfit for work on any day after the day of occurrence of the occupational injury. “Any day” includes rest days, weekend days, leave days, public holidays or days after ceasing employment.
LWDC severityThe average number of lost days per lost work day case.
Maintenance, inspection and testing (as a type of activity)Activities related to preserving, repairing, examining and function testing assets, equipment, plant or facilities.
Medical Cause of DeathThis is the cause of death given on the death certificate. Where two types of causes are provided, such as “pulmonary oedema” caused by “inhalation of hot gases from a fire”, both are recorded.
Medical Treatment Case (MTC)Cases that are not severe enough to be reported as lost work day cases or restricted work day cases but are more severe than requiring simple first aid treatment.
Near MissAn unplanned on uncontrolled event or chain of events that has not resulted in recordable injury or physical damage or environmental damage but had the potential to do so in other circumstances.
Number of days unfit for workThe sum total of calendar days (consecutive or otherwise) after the days on which the occupational injuries occurred, where the persons involved were unfit for work and did not work.
Number of EmployeesAverage number of full-time and part-time employees involved in exploration and production, calculated on a full-time basis, during the reporting year. For example 2 part time employees each working 20 - 30 hours per week is equivalent to 1 full time employee.
Number of FatalitiesThe total number of Company employees and/or Contractor employees who died as a result of an incident. Delayed deaths that occur after the incident are included if the deaths were a direct result of the incident. For example, if a fire killed one person outright, and a second died three weeks later from lung damage caused by the fire, both are reported.
Occupational IllnessAny abnormal condition or disorder, or any fatality other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment. Occupational illness may be caused by inhalation, absorption, ingestion of, or direct contact with the hazard, as well as exposure to physical and psychological hazards. It will generally result from prolonged or repeated exposure. Refer to IOGP/IPIECA Report 393 - Health Performance Indicators, published 2007.
Occupational InjuryAny injury such as a cut, fracture, sprain, amputation, etc., or any fatality, which results from a work-related activity or from an exposure involving a single incident in the work environment, such as deafness from explosion, one-time chemical exposure, back disorder from a slip/trip, insect, or snake bite.
Office, warehouse, accommodation, catering (as a type of activity)Activities related to work conducted in offices, warehouses, workshops, accommodation and catering facilities.
Officially Declared Community Evacuation or Community Shelter-in-Place
  • Officially Declared -- A declaration by a recognized community official (e.g., fire, police, civil defense, emergency management) or delegate (e.g., Company official) authorized to order the community action
  • Community – areas beyond the fence line, worksite, well site, etc. Community includes towns, cities, public areas (parks, residential areas, shopping centres, etc.), open spaces, roads, highways, worksites of other companies, etc. Community does not include gas plants, well sites, production facilities, production platforms, drilling rigs, FPSO, etc. in which the loss of containment occurs.
Off-roadA route used for access to places which are not accessible by a road, (see ‘Road’).
Offshore WorkAll activities and operations that take place at sea, including activities in bays, in major inland seas, such as the Caspian Sea, or in other inland seas directly connected to oceans. Incidents including transportation of people and equipment from shore to the offshore location, either by vessel or helicopter, should be recorded as “offshore”.
Onshore WorkAll activities and operations that take place within a landmass, including those on swamps, rivers and lakes. Land-to-land aircraft operations are counted as onshore, even though flights are over water.
Other (as an incident/event category)Used to specify where an incident cannot be logically classed under any other category. In the case of incident activities, includes air transport incidents.
Overexertion or Strain (as an incident/event category)Physical overexertion, e.g., muscle strain.
Planned shutdown (as a PSE mode of operation)A planned shutdown is the activity of shutting down a process unit normally for planned maintenance or a turnaround.
Pressure Release (as an incident/event category)Release of gas, liquid or object under pressure from a pressurised system.
Primary ContainmentA tank, vessel, pipe, truck, rail car, or other equipment designed to keep a material within it, typically for purposes of storage, separation, processing or transfer of gases or liquids.
Process Facilities used in drilling and production operations in the oil and gas industry. This includes rigs and process equipment (e.g., vessels, piping, valves, boilers, generators, pumps, compressors, exchangers, refrigeration systems) and includes storage tanks, ancillary support areas (e.g., boiler houses and waste water treatment plants), on-site remediation facilities, and distribution piping under control of the Company.
Process safety [From API RP 754]A disciplined framework for managing the integrity of hazardous operating systems and processes by applying good design principles, engineering, and operating and maintenance practices. It deals with the prevention and control of events with the potential to release hazardous materials or energy. Such releases can result in toxic effects, fire or explosion, and could ultimately result in serious injuries, property damage, lost production and environmental impact.
Process safety eventA process safety event, which can also be referred to as an asset integrity event, is a loss of primary containment (LOPC) and is recordable if:
  1. the consequence was a reportable employee or contractor injury or fatality, a third party hospital admission or fatality, a community or site evacuation or a fire/explosion; or
  2. a pressure relief device discharge or material release occurs which exceeded defined thresholds (even if none of the consequences above occurred) as specified within IOGP report 456, Process safety – recommended practice on key performance indicators which provides consequence and threshold definitions consistent with API Recommended Practice No.754. Process Safety Upstream PSE examples can be found in Part F of report 456
Process Safety Event (PSE) [From API RP 754]An unplanned or uncontrolled release of any material including non-toxic and non-flammable materials (e.g., steam, hot water, nitrogen, compressed CO2 or compressed air) from a process, or an undesired event or condition, that under slightly different circumstances, could have resulted in a release of material. For more information see IOGP Report 456, Process safety - Recommended practice on Key Performance Indicators
Process Safety Event RateThe number of process safety events per 1,000,000 (1 million) work hours (production and drilling work hours only).
Process safety relatedProcess safety related events are those which do not meet the specific criteria to be classified as Tier 1 or 2 process safety events but which have learning potential in the prevention of process safety events.
Production (as a work function)Petroleum and natural gas producing operations, including their administrative and engineering aspects, minor construction, repairs, maintenance and servicing, materials supply, and transportation of personnel and equipment. It covers all mainstream production operations including wireline. Gas processing activities with the primary intent of producing gas liquids for sale including:
  • work on production wells under pressure
  • oil (including condensates) and gas extraction and separation (primary production)
  • heavy oil production where it is inseparable from upstream (i.e. stream assisted gravity drainage) production
  • primary oil processing (water separation, stabilization)
  • primary gas processing (dehydration, liquids separation, sweetening, CO2 removal)
  • floating storage units (FSUs) and sub-sea storage units
  • gas processing activities with the primary intent of producing gas liquids for sale
    • secondary liquid separation (i.e. natural gas liquids [NGL] extraction using refrigeration processing)
    • liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas to liquids (GTL) operations
  • flow-lines between wells and pipelines between facilities associated with field production operations
  • oil and gas loading facilities including land or marine vessels (trucks and ships) when connected to an oil or gas production process
  • pipeline operations (including booster stations) operated by company E&P business.
Production excludes:
  • production drilling or workover
  • mining processes associated with the extraction of heavy oil tar sands
  • heavy oil when separable from upstream operations
  • secondary heavy oil processing (upgrader)
  • refineries.
Production operations (as a type of activity)Activities related to the extraction of hydrocarbons from source such as an oil or gas well or hydrocarbon bearing geological structure, including primary processing, storage and transport operations. Includes normal, start-up or shut-down operations.
Recordable A type of event, incident, injury, release or other outcome which has been determined to meet or exceed definitions, criteria or thresholds for inclusion and classification in reported data.
Restricted Work Day Case (RWDC)Any work-related injury other than a fatality or lost work day case which results in a person being unfit for full performance of the regular job on any day after the occupational injury. Work performed might be:
  • an assignment to a temporary job
  • part-time work at the regular job
  • working full-time in the regular job but not performing all the usual duties of the job.
Where no meaningful restricted work is being performed, the incident is recorded as a lost work day case (LWDC).
RoadA thoroughfare which has a prepared, graded and levelled surface designed for the conveyance of motor vehicles (see also ‘off-road’), such as:
  • Asphalt, tarmac
  • Concrete
  • Aggregate
  • Dirt/sand
  • Ice
Secondary containmentAn impermeable physical barrier specifically designed to prevent release of materials into the environment that have breached primary containment.
Seismic/ survey operations (as a type of activity)Activities relating to the determination of sub-surface structures for the purpose of locating oil and gas deposits including geophysical and seismic data acquisition.
Slips and Trips (at the same height) (as an incident/event category)Slips, trips and falls caused by falling over or onto something at the same height.
Struck By (as an incident/event category)Incidents/events where injury results from being hit by moving equipment and machinery, or by flying or falling objects. Also includes vehicle incidents where the vehicle is struck by or struck against another object.
Third PartyA person with no business relation with the company or contractor.
Total recordable injuriesThe sum of fatalities, lost work day cases, restricted work day cases and medical treatment cases.
Total recordable injury rate (TRIR)The number of recordable injuries (fatalities + lost work day cases + restricted work day cases + medical treatment cases) per million hours worked.
Transport – Air (as a type of activity)Involving aircraft, either fixed wing or helicopters. Injuries caused by accidents on the ground at airports are classified in one of the other categories.
Transport – Land (as a type of activity)Involving motorized vehicles designed for transporting people and goods over land, e.g., cars, buses, trucks. Pedestrians struck by a vehicle are classified as land transport incidents. Incidents from a mobile crane would only be land transport incidents if the crane were being moved between locations.
Transport - Water, including Marine Activity (as a type of activity)Involving vessels, equipment or boats designed for transporting people and goods over water (including inland, marine, ice roads and marsh/swamp), e.g., supply vessels, crew boats.
Turnaround (as a PSE mode of operation)A planned, periodic shut down (total or partial) of a process unit or plant to perform maintenance, overhaul and repair operations and to inspect, test and replace process materials and equipment. This is after a planned shutdown.
Unspecified – Other (as a type of activity)Incidents that cannot be logically classed under other headings or where the activity is unknown.
Unspecified (as a work function)Unspecified is used for the entry of data associated with office personnel whose work hours and incident data cannot be reasonably assigned to the administrative support of one of the function groupings of exploration, drilling, production or construction. Corporate overhead support personnel, such as finance or human resources staff, may be examples where work hours cannot be specifically assigned to a particular function. All other data that are not separated out by function are reported as unspecified. NOTE: Data for companies that did not split their data submission by work function are included in the ‘unspecified’ function.
Water related/drowning (as an incident/event category)Incidents/events in which water played a significant role including drowning.
Work-Related InjurySee Occupational Injury.